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Pre-prints (not yet rejected)


  • Sulfaro, A. A., Robinson, A. K., & Carlson, T. A. (2022). Perception as a hierarchical competition: a model that differentiates imagined, veridical, and hallucinated percepts. bioRxiv, doi: 10.1101/2022.09.02.506121

  • Moerel, D., Grootswagers, T., Robinson, A. K., Engeler, P., Holcombe, A. O., & Carlson, T. A. (2022). Rotation-tolerant representations elucidate the time-course of high-level object processing. doi: 10.31234/


  • Grootswagers, T., Zhou, I., Robinson, A. K., Hebart, M. N., & Carlson, T. A. (2021).  THINGS-EEG: Human electroencephalography recordings for 1,854 concepts presented in rapid serial visual presentation streams. bioRxiv, 1990762 doi: 10.1101/2021.06.03.447008

  • Moshel, M., Robinson, A. K., Carlson, T.​, & Grootswagers, T. (2020). Are you for real? Decoding hyperrealistic AI-generated faces from neural activity. PsyArXiv, doi: 10.31234/

  • Whyte, C. J., Robinson, A. K., Grootswagers, T., Hogendoorn, H., & Carlson, T. A. (2020). Decoding Predictions and Violations of Object Position and Category in Time-resolved EEG. bioRxiv, 032888 doi: 10.1101/2020.04.08.032888

Journal Publications
  • Shatek, S. M., Robinson, A. K., Grootswagers, T., & Carlson, T. A. (2022). Capacity for movement is an organisational principle in object representations. NeuroImage, 261, 119517. doi:

  • Grootswagers, T., & Robinson, A. K. (2021). Overfitting the Literature to One Set of Stimuli and Data. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2021.682661

  • Grootswagers, T., Robinson, A. K., Shatek, S. M., & Carlson, T. (2021).The neural dynamics underlying prioritisation of task-relevant information. NBDT, doi: 10.51628/001c.21174

  • Robinson, A. K., Grootswagers, T., Shatek, S. M., Gerboni, J., Holcombe, A., & Carlson, T. (2021). Overlapping neural representations for the position of visible and imagined objects. NBDT, doi: 10.51628/001C.19129

  • Whyte, C. J., & Smith, R. (2020). The Predictive Global Neuronal Workspace: A Formal Active Inference Model of Visual Consciousness. Progress in Neurobiology, 101918 doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101918

  • Teichmann, L., Quek, G., Robinson, A. K., Grootswagers, T., & Carlson, T., Rich, A. (2020). The influence of object-colour knowledge on emerging object representations in the brain. The Journal of Neuroscience, 40(35) 6779-6789 doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0158-20.2020

  • Contini, E. W., Goddard, E., Grootswagers, T., Williams, M., & Carlson, T. A. (2020). A humanness dimension to visual object coding in the brain. NeuroImage, 117139 doi: 10.10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117139  

  • Grootswagers, T. (2020). A primer on running human behavioural experiments online. Behavioural Research Methods doi: 10.3758/s13428-020-01395-3

  • Shatek, S. M., Grootswagers, T., Robinson, A. K., & Carlson, T. A., (2019). Decoding images in the mind’s eye: The temporal dynamics of visual imagery. Vision 3(4), 53 doi: 10.3390/vision3040053

  • Grootswagers, T., Robinson, A. K., Shatek, S. M., & Carlson, T. A. (2019). Untangling featural and conceptual object representations. NeuroImage, 202, 116083 doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116083

  • Teichmann, L., Grootswagers, T., Carlson, T. A., & Rich, A. (2019). Seeing versus Knowing: The Temporal Dynamics of Real and Implied Colour Processing in the Human Brain. NeuroImage, 200, 373-381 doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.06.062.

  • Robinson, A., Grootswagers, T., & Carlson, T. (2019). The influence of image masking on object representations during rapid serial visual presentation.  NeuroImage, 197, 224-231 doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.04.050

  • Mai, A., Grootswagers, T., & Carlson, T. A. (2019). In Search of Consciousness: Examining the Temporal Dynamics of Conscious Visual Perception using MEG time-series data. Neuropsychologia, 129, 310-317 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2019.04.015

  • Grootswagers, T., Robinson, A. K., & Carlson, T. A. (2019). The representational dynamics of visual objects in rapid serial visual processing streams. Neuroimage, 188, 668-679. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.12.046

  • Teichmann, L., Grootswagers, T., Carlson, T., & Rich, A. N. (2018). Decoding Digits and Dice with Magnetoencephalography: Evidence for a Shared Representation of Magnitude. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 30(7), 999-1010. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_01257 


  • Sankaran, N., Thompson, W. F., Carlile, S., & Carlson, T. A. (2018). Decoding the dynamic representation of musical pitch from human brain activity. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 839. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-19222-3 

  • Grootswagers, T., Robinson, A. K., & Carlson, T. A. (2018). The representational dynamics of visual objects in rapid serial visual processing streams. doi: 10.1101/394148 

  • Grootswagers, T., Cichy, R. M., & Carlson, T. A. (2018). Finding decodable information that can be read out in behaviour. Neuroimage, 179, 252-262. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.06.022 

  • Goddard, E., Klein, C., Solomon, S. G., Hogendoorn, H., & Carlson, T. A. (2018). Interpreting the dimensions of neural feature representations revealed by dimensionality reduction. Neuroimage, 180, 41-67. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.06.068 

  • Carlson, T., Goddard, E., Kaplan, D. M., Klein, C., & Ritchie, J. B. (2018). Ghosts in machine learning for cognitive neuroscience: Moving from data to theory. Neuroimage, 180, 88-100. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.08.019 

  • Wardle, S. G., Ritchie, J. B., Seymour, K., & Carlson, T. A. (2017). Edge-Related Activity Is Not Necessary to Explain Orientation Decoding in Human Visual Cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 37(5), 1187-1196. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.2690-16.2016 

  • Grootswagers, T., Wardle, S. G., & Carlson, T. A. (2017). Decoding dynamic brain patterns from evoked responses: A tutorial on Multivariate Pattern Analysis applied to time series neuroimaging data. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 29(4), 677-697. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_01068 

  • Grootswagers, T., Ritchie, J. B., Wardle, S. G., Heathcote, A., & Carlson, T. A. (2017). Asymmetric Compression of Representational Space for Object Animacy Categorization under Degraded Viewing Conditions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 29(12), 1995-2010. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_01177 

  • Grootswagers, T., Kennedy, B. L., Most, S. B., & Carlson, T. A. (2017). Neural signatures of dynamic emotion constructs in the human brain. Neuropsychologia. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.10.016 

  • Goddard, E., Solomon, S. G., & Carlson, T. A. (2017). Dynamic population codes of multiplexed stimulus features in primate area MT. Journal of Neurophysiology, 118(1), 203-218. doi: 10.1152/jn.00954.2016 

  • Contini, E. W., Wardle, S. G., & Carlson, T. A. (2017). Decoding the time-course of object recognition in the human brain: From visual features to categorical decisions. Neuropsychologia, 105, 165-176. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.02.013 

  • Wardle, S. G., Kriegeskorte, N., Grootswagers, T., Khaligh-Razavi, S.-M., & Carlson, T. A. (2016). Perceptual similarity of visual patterns predicts dynamic neural activation patterns measured with MEG. Neuroimage, 132, 59-70. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.02.019 

  • Ritchie, J. B., & Carlson, T. A. (2016). Neural Decoding and “Inner” Psychophysics: A Distance-to-Bound Approach for Linking Mind, Brain, and Behavior. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10(190). doi: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00190 

  • Goddard, E., Carlson, T. A., Dermody, N., & Woolgar, A. (2016). Representational dynamics of object recognition: Feedforward and feedback information flows. Neuroimage, 128, 385-397. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.01.006 

  • Wardle, S. G., & Carlson, T. A. (2015). Zen Mountains: An Illusion of Perceptual Transparency. i-Perception, 6(2), 108-110. doi: 10.1068/i0723sas 

  • Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. (2015). Emerging Object Representations in the Visual System Predict Reaction Times for Categorization. PLOS Computational Biology, 11(6), e1004316. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004316 ​

  • Carlson, T. A., & Wardle, S. G. (2015). Sensible decoding. Neuroimage, 110, 217-218. doi: 1016/j.neuroimage.2015.02.009 

  • Redcay, E., & Carlson, T. A. (2014). Rapid neural discrimination of communicative gestures. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(4), 545-551. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsu089 

  • Plow, E. B., Cattaneo, Z., Carlson, T. A., Alvarez, G. A., Pascual-Leone, A., & Battelli, L. (2014). The compensatory dynamic of inter-hemispheric interactions in visuospatial attention revealed using rTMS and fMRI. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(226). doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00226 

  • Chakravarthi, R., Carlson, T. A., Chaffin, J., Turret, J., & VanRullen, R. (2014). The Temporal Evolution of Coarse Location Coding of Objects: Evidence for Feedback. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(10), 2370-2384. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00644 

  • Carlson, T. A., Simmons, R. A., Kriegeskorte, N., & Slevc, L. R. (2014). The Emergence of Semantic Meaning in the Ventral Temporal Pathway. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(1), 120-131. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00458 

  • Carlson, T. A., Ritchie, J. B., Kriegeskorte, N., Durvasula, S., & Ma, J. (2014). Reaction Time for Object Categorization Is Predicted by Representational Distance. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(1), 132-142. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00476 

  • Carlson, T. A. (2014). Orientation Decoding in Human Visual Cortex: New Insights from an Unbiased Perspective. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34(24), 8373-8383. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.0548-14.2014 

  • Ritchie, J. B., & Carlson, T. A. (2013). Tool Integration and Dynamic Touch. Psychological Science, 24(6), 1066-1068. doi: 10.1177/0956797612459768 ​

  • Carlson, T. A., Tovar, D. A., Alink, A., & Kriegeskorte, N. (2013). Representational dynamics of object vision: The first 1000 ms. Journal of Vision, 13(10). doi: 10.1167/13.10.1 

  • Naber, M., Carlson, T. A., Verstraten, F. A. J., & Einhäuser, W. (2011). Perceptual benefits of objecthood. Journal of Vision, 11(4), 8-8. doi: 10.1167/11.4.8 

  • Hogendoorn, H., Carlson, T. A., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2011). Mapping the route to visual awareness. Journal of Vision, 11(13), 4-4. doi: 10.1167/11.13.4 

  • Dakin, S. C., Greenwood, J. A., Carlson, T. A., & Bex, P. J. (2011). Crowding is tuned for perceived (not physical) location. Journal of Vision, 11(9), 2-2. doi: 10.1167/11.9.2 

  • Carlson, T. A., Hogendoorn, H., Kanai, R., Mesik, J., & Turret, J. (2011). High temporal resolution decoding of object position and category. Journal of Vision, 11(10), 9-9. doi: 10.1167/11.10.9 ​

  • Carlson, T., Hogendoorn, H., Fonteijn, H., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2011). Spatial coding and invariance in object-selective cortex. Cortex, 47(1), 14-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2009.08.015 

  • Ritchie, J. B., & Carlson, T. (2010). Mirror, mirror, on the wall, is that even my hand at all? Changes in the afterimage of one's reflection in a mirror in response to bodily movement. Neuropsychologia, 48(5), 1495-1500. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.01.020 

  • Hogendoorn, H., Carlson, T. A., Vanrullen, R., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2010). Timing divided attention. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72(8), 2059-2068. doi: 10.3758/BF03196683 

  • Carlson, T. A., Alvarez, G., Wu, D.-a., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2010). Rapid Assimilation of External Objects Into the Body Schema. Psychological Science, 21(7), 1000-1005. doi: 10.1177/0956797610371962 

  • Kanai, R., Carlson, T. A., Verstraten, F. A. J., & Walsh, V. (2009). Perceived timing of new objects and feature changes. Journal of Vision, 9(7), 5-5. doi: 10.1167/9.7.5 

  • Hogendoorn, H., Kammers, M. P. M., Carlson, T. A., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2009). Being in the dark about your hand: Resolution of visuo-proprioceptive conflict by disowning visible limbs. Neuropsychologia, 47(13), 2698-2703. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.05.014 

  • Battelli, L., Alvarez, G. A., Carlson, T., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2009). The Role of the Parietal Lobe in Visual Extinction Studied with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(10), 1946-1955. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2008.21149 ​

  • Hogendoorn, H., Carlson, T. A., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2008). Interpolation and extrapolation on the path of apparent motion. Vision Research, 48(7), 872-881. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2007.12.019 

  • VanRullen, R., Carlson, T., & Cavanagh, P. (2007). The blinking spotlight of attention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(49), 19204-19209. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707316104 

  • Hogendoorn, H., Carlson, T. A., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2007). The time course of attentive tracking. Journal of Vision, 7(14), 2-2. doi: 10.1167/7.14.2 ​

  • Carlson, T. A., Rauschenberger, R., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2007). No Representation Without Awareness in the Lateral Occipital Cortex. Psychological Science, 18(4), 298-302. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01892.x ​

  • Carlson, T. A., Alvarez, G. A., & Cavanagh, P. (2007). Quadrantic deficit reveals anatomical constraints on selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(33), 13496-13500. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0702685104 ​

  • Kim, M., Ducros, M., Carlson, T., Ronen, I., He, S., Ugurbil, K., & Kim, D.-S. (2006). Anatomical correlates of the functional organization in the human occipitotemporal cortex. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24(5), 583-590. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2005.12.005 ​

  • Carlson, T. A., Schrater, P., & He, S. (2006). Floating square illusion: Perceptual uncoupling of static and dynamic objects in motion. Journal of Vision, 6(2), 4-4. doi: 10.1167/6.2.4 ​

  • Carlson, T. A., Hogendoorn, H., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2006). The speed of visual attention: What time is it? Journal of Vision, 6(12), 6-6. doi: 10.1167/6.12.6 ​

  • Carlson, T., Grol, M. J., & Verstraten, F. A. J. (2006). Dynamics of visual recognition revealed by fMRI. Neuroimage, 32(2), 892-905. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.03.059 ​

  • Carlson, T. A., & He, S. (2004). Competing Global Representations Fail to Initiate Binocular Rivalry. Neuron, 43(6), 907-914. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2004.08.039 

  • Carlson, T. A., Schrater, P., & He, S. (2003). Patterns of Activity in the Categorical Representations of Objects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15(5), 704-717. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2003.15.5.704 

  • Carlson, T. A., & He, S. (2000). Visible binocular beats from invisible monocular stimuli during binocular rivalry. Current Biology, 10(17), 1055-1058. doi: 10.1016/S0960-9822(00)00672-2 

Book Chapters
  • He, S., Carlson, T. A., & Chen, X. (2004). Parallel pathways and temporal dynamics in binocular rivalry. In D. Alais & R. Blake (Eds.), Binocular rivalry and perceptual ambiguity. Boston, MA: MIT Press

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